The true cause of Peyronie’s disease is so far not fully understood, however, several possible explanations have been proposed. The most widely accepted theory is that in the setting of genetic predisposition, microtrauma of the penis initiates the disorder, with systemic vascular diseases, and smoking possibly also playing a role.1-3
A number of risk factors have been associated with the disease:

- Dupuytren’s disease (contracture)
- Paget’s disease of bone
- Family history of PD

- Intercourse
- Vacuum erection devices
- Penile invasive procedures
- Urethritis
- Prostatectomy
- Injection therapy (vasoactive drugs) for ED

- Diabetes
- Hyperlipidemia
- Hypertension
- Heart disease
- Smoking

- Low testosterone



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  2. Jalkut M et al. Rajfer J. Rev Urol. 2003;5(3):142-148.
  3. Carrieri MP et al. J Clin Epidemiol. 1998;51(6):511-515.
  4. Nugteren HM et al. Int J Impot Res. 2011;23(4):142-145.
  5. Nachtsheim DA, Rearden A. J Urol. 1996;156(4):1330-1334.
  6. Kadioglu A, Sanli O. Epidemiology of Peyronie’s disease. In: Levine LA, ed. Peyronie’s Disease: A Guide to Clinical Management. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press Inc;2007
  7. Kadioglu A et al. J Androl. 2011;32(5):502-508.
  8. La Pera G et al. Eur Urol. 2001;40(5):525-530.
  9. Nam HJ et al. Int J Urol. 2011;18(11):796-800.
  10. Moreno SA, Morgentaler A. J Sex Med. 2009;6(6): 1729-1735.